The term precarious is used to refer to a non-standard or temporary work that is poorly paid, unprotected and insecure. According to Standing precariat consist millions of people, who are defined with three dimensions. First, they have to adapt to unstable job positions and unstable living, a sort of existential insecurity. They have to do a lot of work for labor, work that is not recognized and is ignored, but unless they do it, they will suffer consequences. Also, precarious workers are constantly faced with uncertainty, not knowing what is best to do with their time, whether to devote it to retraining or networking. Second, the precariat has to rely on money wages because they don’t have access to non-wage benefits, such as pensions, paid holidays, medical leave etc. They have to bear the risks themselves. If they make one bad decision, one mistake they can be left with nothing. And third, this class has lost all human rights, such as civil rights, cultural rights, social rights, political rights, economic rights. No one represents their interests or aspirations.
This feelings of uncertainty and hopelessness in the event of an unstable material situation due to irregular income and the inability to achieve financial security contribute to the maintenance of chronic stress. Chronic stress is a prolonged and constant feeling of stress that can negatively affect your health if it goes untreated. It can cause a variety of psychological symptoms, such as irritability, anxiety, depression, insomnia, and affect your overall well-being. Researches have shown that with the same workload, there are no significant differences between permanent and temporary employees, but given the high level of uncertainty experienced by temporary employees, they are characterized by poorer self-esteem and a greater propensity to depressive and anxiety disorders. Within this group, the worst health conditions correlate with the highest workload, greater job insecurity and the constant need to find new jobs. People who spend a lot of time looking for new workplace or job, who are under-evaluated constantly, and who do not have union support are particularly vulnerable. Also, poorly paid work often compels people to work more hours to compensate for the financially insecure nature of the job. This pressure to increase the hours of work leaves little time for socializing which, in turn, damages individual psychological well-being. Uncertainty about continuing employment can be a greater burden than actual unemployment, because precarious workers do not have the same support mechanisms as the unemployed in terms of social benefits or additional training programs to increase employability.
The effects of unstable forms of employment on the development of mental disorders are independent of gender, education, marital status, major life events, personality, or finances. Constant exposure to stress, can also affect physical health causing cardiovascular disease, obesity and other eating disorders, sexual dysfunction, skin and hair problems, gastrointestinal problems etc.